Kant II

·        A  worry is that if you allow too much fiddling with maxims, you can get out of just about anything.  Suppose the maxim is: Lie to get ahead if you are a very, very immoral person who does not care about the damage selfish lying does to one’s soul…  Or Lie to get ahead if you can get away with it…  Ditto for false promising, etc.

2. A basic point in Aristotle’s ethics was that there were some things that are ultimate goods, things worth having in and of themselves.  According to Aristotle, the exercise of rationality was such.  According to Aquinas, this includes more generally things like existence, procreation, understanding and society.  They are innately good, independent of how anybody feels about them, but at the same time it is natural to have positive feelings towards them.  Natural, because the purpose of positive feelings is to point to things that are good, and natural means what is in accordance with the purpose of a thing