The older argument

  1. God knows you will be in class.
  2. If God knows that p, then necessarily p.
  3. So, necessarily you will be in class.
  4. If something is necessary, youíre not free with respect to it.
  5. So, youíre not free with respect to being in class.

Boethius/Aquinas response

Premise (2) is ambiguous between:

2a. If God knows that p, then: (it is necessary that p).

2b. It is necessary that: (If God knows that p, then p).

But 2a is needed for the argument to be valid and 2b is what is true.

The newer argument

  1. If you have the power not to do A, you have the power to make God not have foreseen you doing A.
  2. Godís having foreseen you doing A and Godís not having foreseen you doing A are facts about the past.
  3. You have no power to make a fact about the past be.
  4. So, you do not have the power not to do A.

Ockhamís way out

We can make past soft facts be.